If using dried rice noodles, pour enough warm water over them in a medium bowl to cover completely. Let soak until softened, about 30 minutes. Drain thoroughly. If using fresh rice noodles, run under warm water and separate strands.
Marinate the shrimp: Stir the soy sauce, rice wine, garlic, cornstarch, and pepper together in a bowl until the cornstarch is dissolved. Toss the shrimp gently in the marinade until coated. Let stand for 10 minutes.
Prepare the seasonings: Stir the soy sauce, chili garlic sauce, and sugar together in a bowl until the sugar is dissolved.
Heat a wok over high heat until hot. Add the oil and swirl to coat the sides. Add the soaked or fresh rice noodles and stir-fry until the noodles are lightly browned along the edges, about 2 minutes. Scoop the noodles onto a plate and set aside.
Add the shrimp to the wok and stir-fry until no longer pink, about 2 minutes. Add both onions and the ginger and stir-fry until fragrant, about 1 minute.
Slide the noodles into the wok, scatter the bean sprouts over them, and pour in the seasonings. Toss until the mixture is heated through and is coated evenly with the seasonings, about 3 minutes.
Stir in the peanuts, scoop the contents of the wok onto a warm serving plate, and serve.